According to Shatsky, labor should have a special place in the upbringing of the younger generation. He emphasizes her social and educational role. The work of schoolchildren is a means that enables a child to feel like a participant in general work. The scientist makes certain demands on child labor (its diversity, connection with the work of adults, productivity; change of types of work, its regularity and feasibility; reasonable organization of work, emotional color, enthusiasm; awareness of the importance of their work for the people).
S. Shatsky believed that the younger generation is educated not only by the school, but also by the environment. Therefore, it is necessary to study its potential educational opportunities and use them wisely.
Experimental data have emerged in modern psychology to show that there is no link between intelligence and creativity.
This differentiation is important because it allows us to talk about two types of abilities – they are often called "mobile" and "acquired". Here’s how they differ.
"Mobile" simply means that these abilities can be used in a variety of ways and for a variety of purposes. For example, to study any subject or solve any problem that arises in life.
However, intelligence can be given the following definition: it is the possession of a certain amount of knowledge.
For a long time it was mistakenly believed that the main thing in the mental development of children – the transfer of as much knowledge as possible. Life proves that a smart person is not so much a person who knows a lot, but a tone, who knows how to apply existing knowledge in difficult everyday life situations. After all, the ability to find a way out in any situation of everyday life is the most valuable intellectual skill of man. Such people are said to be creative. Only a harmonious combination of characteristics of intelligence and creativity (creative abilities) determines the formation of a self-sufficient personality. Psychologists have identified four groups of children with different levels of intelligence and creativity, who differed in ways to adapt to external conditions and solve life problems
Belief in their abilities. Good self-control.
Good social integration.
High ability to concentrate.
High interest in everything new.
Constant conflict between one’s own ideas about the world and school requirements,
Fear of evaluation by others.
The desire to succeed in learning.
Failures are perceived as a catastrophe.
Fear of risk and expression of one’s own opinion.
Fear of self-esteem.
Good (at least by external signs) adaptation and life satisfaction.
Insufficient intelligence is compensated by sociability and some passivity.
Children with a high level of intelligence and creativity
They are confident in their abilities, have an adequate level of self-esteem; they are characterized by inner freedom and high self-control. If the situation requires, behave like an adult. Show interest in everything new and unusual, are characterized by great initiative, but at the same time. successfully adapt to the requirements of the social environment, while maintaining the internal independence of thoughts and actions.
Children with a high level of intelligence and a low level of creativity
They are distinguished by the desire for school success, which is expressed in the form of excellent self-esteem. They find it extremely difficult to accept failure, instead of hoping for success, they are more likely to have a fear of failure. These children do not like risk, do not like to express their publicly. They are restrained, closed and distance themselves from their classmates. They have very few close friends. They do not like to be left alone and suffer without an external adequate assessment of their actions, learning outcomes or activities.
Children with a low level of intelligence and a high level of creativity
These children often fall into the ranks of "outcasts". They find it difficult to adapt to school requirements, often have hobbies outside of school (hobbies, clubs, etc.), where they get the opportunity to express their creative inclinations. They are the most anxious, suffering from self-doubt. Teachers often describe them as stupid, inattentive, because they are reluctant to perform routine tasks and can not concentrate.
Children with low intelligence and creativity
Such children, as a rule, outwardly adapt well, are kept in "middle peasants" and are satisfied with the position. They have adequate self-esteem, low level of subject abilities is compensated by the development of social intelligence, sociability, passivity in learning.
Thus, the results of research show that when working with children it is important to develop not only intelligence but also creativity, and, conversely, during the development of creativity should not forget about intelligence. After all, when high intelligence is combined with a high level of creativity, a creative person is often well adapted to the environment, active, emotionally balanced, independent, etc. And when we combine creativity with low intelligence, we see a neurotic anxious person with poor adaptation to the requirements of the social environment and a difficult fate.
Psychologists claim that the source of the creative process is objective contradictions. What traits must a person have to overcome the contradictions that arise?
As a rule, the contradiction exists objectively. To detect it, you need to have some degree of observation, attention, which to some extent is inherent in every person. So, any person is able to identify the existing contradiction. What is the difference between a creative personality?
First, "any" person discovers a contradiction often by accident or under some guidance. A person with developed creative abilities searches for contradictions and identifies them independently and purposefully.
Secondly, "any" person, having found a contradiction, does not always seek to resolve it. A developed creative personality sees in it a source of development. It is able to identify in a timely manner the contradiction that is most relevant and possible to resolve at this stage. This is due to the need for in-depth analysis of the problem. The effect of objective, comprehensive analysis is important to have in-depth knowledge on the subject. In addition, this knowledge a developed creative personality is able to apply in a variety of situations.
No less important feature – independence, which manifests itself as a permanent, stable personality trait, which needs to work systematically independently and, including in terms of self-improvement, development of their abilities.
All these features of creative personality can be synthesized into a special feature that is both a criterion of creative personality – creative independence as the ability not only to use knowledge but also to strive for their constant renewal. To develop this creative independence is the most important task of school and primary school. schools in particular.
What conditions should be created for the optimal development of the child’s creative abilities? An unambiguous answer to this question has not yet been given. There are different approaches and recommendations. For example, the American psychologist J. Smith argues that learning to create will be possible if the following basic conditions are created:
physical conditions, ie the availability of materials for creativity and the ability to act with them at any time; socio-economic conditions under which the child has a sense of external security, ie knows that his creative expressions will not receive a negative assessment from adults; psychological conditions, the meaning of which is that the child develops a sense of inner security, freedom and liberty by supporting adults in their creative endeavors.
The last two conditions are purely a question of the psychological climate, which depends on the teacher.
But the role of adults in this process is not limited to creating conditions. It also consists in actively helping the child to develop his creative abilities. In this regard, useful recommendations have been developed by the American psychologist J. Galen. Here are the most interesting of them:
Create a comfortable and safe psychological base for your child to search for, to which he could return if he is frightened by his own discoveries. Support your child’s propensity for creativity and empathize with failures. Avoid disapproving evaluations of her creative ideas. Be tolerant of strange ideas, respect the curiosity, questions and ideas of the child. Try to answer all the questions, even if they seem wild and absurd. Explain that many of her questions cannot always be answered in the same way. This requires time, patience. The child must learn to live in intellectual tension. Give the child the opportunity to be alone and let him do his own thing if he wants https://123helpme.me/write-my-lab-report/ to. Excess care can slow down creativity. The desires and goals of children belong to them, and the help of adults can sometimes be perceived as "breaking the boundaries" of the individual. Help your child learn to build their value system, not necessarily based on their own views, so that they can respect themselves and their ideas along with other ideas and their carriers. Thus, she herself, in turn, will be appreciated by others. Help the child to meet basic human needs (feelings of security, love, respect for themselves and others), because a person whose energy is constrained by basic needs, is less able to reach the heights of self-expression. Show sympathy for her first awkward attempts to express her ideas in words and thus make them understandable to others. Find words of support for the child’s new creative endeavors, avoid criticizing the first attempts – no matter how unsuccessful they may be. Help your child become a “smart adventurer” and sometimes rely on cognition for risk and intuition; most likely, this will help to make a real discovery. Maintain the atmosphere necessary for creativity, helping the child to avoid public disapproval, reduce social friction and overcome the negative reaction of peers.